Cryptology vs Cryptography: What’s the Difference?

Cryptology vs Cryptography: What’s the Difference?

Public key cryptography is commonly used in digital signatures for message authentication. Senders use their private keys to digitally sign their messages to prove their authenticity. Thus, the receiver knows exactly that the sender is a trusted third party. Public and private key cryptographic algorithms both transform messages from plaintext to secret messages, and then back to plaintext again.

What is cryptography in simple words

If you are using Bitcoin for purchases, the easiest way to do that is through debit-card-type transactions. You can also use these debit cards to withdraw cash, just like at an ATM. Converting cryptocurrency to cash is also possible using banking accounts or peer-to-peer transactions. Hot means the wallet is connected to the internet, which makes it easy to transact, but vulnerable to thefts and frauds. Cold storage, on the other hand, is safer but makes it harder to transact. In an ideal world, it would take a person just 10 minutes to mine one bitcoin, but in reality, the process takes an estimated 30 days.

Disadvantages of Cryptography

Encryption is a fundamental component of cryptography, as it jumbles up data using various algorithms. Data encryption is the method of undoing the work done by encrypting data so that it can be read again. Storing passwords as plaintext is a big security no-no because that makes users prone to account and identity theft in the wake of data breaches (which sadly doesn’t stop big players from doing it).

Much of the theoretical work in cryptography concerns cryptographic primitives—algorithms with basic cryptographic properties—and their relationship to other cryptographic problems. More complicated cryptographic tools are then built from these basic primitives. These primitives provide fundamental properties, which are used to develop more complex tools called cryptosystems or cryptographic protocols, which guarantee one or more high-level security properties. Note, however, that the distinction between cryptographic primitives and cryptosystems, is quite arbitrary; for example, the RSA algorithm is sometimes considered a cryptosystem, and sometimes a primitive. Typical examples of cryptographic primitives include pseudorandom functions, one-way functions, etc. It is a common misconception that every encryption method can be broken.


This will protect the organization’s keys, enhance efficiency, and ensure compliance with data and privacy regulations. Huge cyberattacks like Meltdown/Spectre and Heartbleed have been capable of exposing cryptographic keys stored in server memory. Therefore, stored keys must be encrypted and only made available unencrypted when placed within secure, tamper-protected environments, or even kept offline. A common hash function is folding, which takes a value and divides it into several parts, adds parts, and uses the last four remaining digits as the key or hashed value. Another is digit rearrangement, which takes specific digits in the original value, reverses them, and uses the remaining number as the hash value.

What is cryptography in simple words

A third form, hash functions, does not use keys at all, replacing them with long numbers of fixed lengths that function as unique data identifiers. Public key cryptography (PKC), or asymmetric cryptography, uses mathematical functions to create codes that are exceptionally difficult to crack. It enables people to communicate securely over a nonsecure communications channel without the need for a secret key. For example, proxy reencryption enables a proxy entity to reencrypt data from one public key to another without requiring access to the plaintext or private keys.


In the Budget, the Indian Finance Minister’s announcement on levying a 30% tax on gains on the transfer of virtual digital assets, which includes cryptocurrency, was initially seen as an endorsement of cryptocurrencies. It set off the debate on whether or not the tax on cryptocurrency indicates the government has recognized it as a legitimate form of currency. The underlying blockchain technology is today used in banking, insurance, and other business sectors. In a passive attack, the intruder can only see the private data but can hardly make any changes to it or alter it. Passive attacks are more dangerous because the intruder only sees the message without altering it.

What is cryptography in simple words

Coding (see encryption) takes place using a key that ideally is known only by the sender and intended recipient of the message. There are numerous techniques and algorithms that implement each of the three types of encryption discussed above. They are generally quite complex and beyond the scope of this article; we’ve included links here where you can learn more about some of the most commonly used examples. In fact, the development of computers and advances in cryptography went hand in hand. Charles Babbage, whose idea for the Difference Engine presaged modern computers, was also interested in cryptography.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

With each message, there were more than 150 million million million possible combinations. Security professionals will use it to find vulnerabilities and develop stronger, less vulnerable cryptographic tools, while hackers will generally seek to infiltrate systems and steal data. The 2016 FBI–Apple encryption dispute concerns the ability of courts in the United States to compel manufacturers‘ assistance in unlocking cell phones whose contents are cryptographically protected. The implementation of DES requires a security provider, but which one to choose depends on the programming language one uses, like Phyton, Java, or MATLAB.